This one was larger than the first, with 94 meteorological stations, but World War II delayed or prevented the publication of much of the data collected during it. The precipitation chart is useful to plan for seasonal effects such as monsoon climate in India or wet season in Africa. But what makes Canada’s Arctic so different from many of the other Arctic regions in the world are its islands. In tropical and monsoon climates, the amounts may be underestimated. 2 spot, according to scientists at the U.S. National Oceanic and … Changes have already been noticed in the High Arctic, including reduced sea ice. Due to the lack of major population centres in the Arctic, weather and climate observations from the region tend to be widely spaced and of short duration compared to the midlatitudes and tropics. An interesting example is the Tibetan Plateau, where the monsoon creates steady strong winds from December to April, and calm winds from June to October. At the North Pole on the June solstice, around 21 June, the sun circles at 23.5° above the horizon. More than one-quarter of the land area, especially in the north, is permanently covered by ice, and most of the northern island, as well as part of the southern, lies in the zone of Arctic desert. Sea ice is relatively thin, generally less than about 4 m (13 ft), with thicker ridges (NSIDC). It is also the coldest. Arctic sea ice decline: faster than forecasted. These provided knowledge of perhaps the most extreme climate of the Arctic, and also the first suggestion that the ice sheet lies in a depression of the bedrock below (now known to be caused by the weight of the ice itself). In September and October the days get rapidly shorter, and in northern areas the sun disappears from the sky entirely. Corrections are made to data to account for this uncaught precipitation, but they are not perfect and introduce some error into the climatologies (Serreze and Barry 2005). In the figure above showing station climatologies, the lower-left plot, for NP 7–8, is representative of conditions over the Arctic Basin. In the station-climatology figure above, the plot for Resolute is typical of this region. The east coast of the central third of the island receives between 200 and 600 mm (7.9 and 23.6 in) of precipitation per year, with increasing amounts from north to south. Along the coast, temperatures are kept from varying too much by the moderating influence of the nearby water or melting sea ice. In the interior, temperatures are kept from rising much above freezing because of the snow-covered surface but can drop to −30 °C (−22 °F) even in July. Minimum temperatures in winter over the higher parts of the ice sheet can drop below −60 °C (−76 °F)(CIA, 1978). FILE - In this July 24, 2017 file photo, an iceberg floats past Bylot Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The parts of the Basin just north of Svalbard and the Taymyr Peninsula are exceptions to the general description just given. It reduces the transfer of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere; it causes less solar energy to be absorbed at the surface, and provides a surface on which snow can accumulate, which further decreases the absorption of solar energy; since salt is rejected from the ice as it forms, the ice increases the salinity of the ocean's surface water where it forms and decreases the salinity where it melts, both of which can affect the ocean's circulation. While the station was installed just last October, Svalbard weather data extends back to the start of the 20th century. Over most of the seas that are ice-covered seasonally, winter temperatures average between about −30 and −15 °C (−22 and 5 °F). FILE - Sea ice breaks apart as the Finnish icebreaker MSV Nordica traverses the Northwest Passage through the Victoria Strait in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in a Friday, July 21, 2017 file photo. The Arctic is often perceived as a region stuck in a permanent deep freeze. This caused Fridtjof Nansen to realize that the sea ice was moving from the Siberian side of the Arctic to the Atlantic side.  The coastlines in this ecozone vary considerably.Precipitous fjords and cliffs are common around the coasts associated with Baffin Basin, Lancaster Sound and Nares Strait whereas areas to the west like the Foxe Basin, Amundsen Gulf and Viscount Melville Sound have flat to rolling coastal plains. The sea ice begins to refreeze, and eventually gets a fresh snow cover, causing it to reflect even more of the dwindling amount of sunlight reaching it. The straits between these islands often remain covered by sea ice throughout the summer. These pieces of software are sometimes relatively simple, but often become highly complex as scientists try to include more and more elements of the environment to make the results more realistic. By the end of the 21st century, the annual average temperature in the Arctic is predicted to increase by 2.8 to 7.8 °C (5.0 to 14.0 °F), with more warming in winter (4.3 to 11.4 °C (7.7 to 20.5 °F)) than in summer. The dry winters result from the low frequency of cyclones in the region during that time, and the region's distance from warm open water that could provide a source of moisture (Serreze and Barry 2005). The Bering Sea is influenced by the North Pacific storm track, and has annual precipitation totals between 400 and 800 mm (16 and 31 in), also with a winter maximum. The last 2 weeks of past weather data for Arctic Archipelago are available for free evaluation here. Coastal areas can be affected by nearby open water, or by heat transfer through sea ice from the ocean, and many parts lose their snow cover in summer, allowing them to absorb more solar radiation and warm more than the interior. This region is continuously below freezing, so all precipitation falls as snow, with more in summer than in the winter time. Changes in the Arctic have global implications. Unless otherwise noted, all precipitation amounts given in this article are liquid-equivalent amounts, meaning that frozen precipitation is melted before it is measured. The small daily temperature range (the length of the vertical bars) results from the fact that the sun's elevation above the horizon does not change much or at all in this region during one day. The maps on the right show the average temperature over the Arctic in January and July, generally the coldest and warmest months. Likewise the United States and Canadian governments cut back on spending for Arctic observing as the perceived need for the DEWLINE declined. While Reykjavík on Iceland has mostly cloudy days, Sossusvlei in the Namib desert is one of the sunniest places on earth.  Another significant moment in Arctic observing before World War II occurred in 1937 when the USSR established the first of over 30 North-Pole drifting stations. As the snow disappears on land, the underlying surfaces absorb even more energy, and begin to warm rapidly. Svalbard is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. The Arctic Basin is typically covered by sea ice year round, which strongly influences its summer temperatures. , A study published in the journal Science in September 2009 determined that temperatures in the Arctic are higher presently than they have been at any time in the previous 2,000 years. Marlink is providing vital connectivity for an Arctic Climate Science project – Hearts in the Ice.. Monthly precipitation totals over most of the Arctic Basin average about 15 mm (0.59 in) from November through May, and rise to 20 to 30 mm (0.79 to 1.18 in) in July, August, and September (Serreze and Hurst 2000). Weather models comparison for Arctic Archipelago. The Greenland Ice Sheet covers about 80% of Greenland, extending to the coast in places, and has an average elevation of 2,100 m (6,900 ft) and a maximum elevation of 3,200 m (10,500 ft). Annual precipitation amounts given below for Greenland are from Figure 6.5 in Serreze and Barry (2005). In addition, the glaciers of the archipelago are already retreating and thinning, some quite rapidly. In this July 24, 2017 file photo, an iceberg floats past Bylot Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The presence of the islands, most of which lose their snow cover in summer, allows the summer temperatures to rise well above freezing. These maps were made with data from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, which incorporates available data into a computer model to create a consistent global data set. Svalbard weather. These frequent cyclones lead to larger annual precipitation totals than over most of the Arctic. You can explore the climate for any location like the Amazon rainforest, West-Africa savannas, Sahara desert, Siberian Tundra or the Himalaya. Sea ice is mostly fresh water since the salt is rejected by the ice as it forms, so the melting ice has a temperature of 0 °C (32 °F), and any extra energy from the sun goes to melting more ice, not to warming the surface. The main exception to this general description is the high part of the Greenland Ice Sheet, which receives all of its precipitation as snow, in all seasons. You can also see the cold winters in Moscow with a few days that do not even reach -10°C as daily maximum. For the study, the researchers looked at heathland in the Lofoten archipelago of the Norwegian Arctic region, finding that the area had been affected by two extreme climatic events. As such, the climate of much of the Arctic is moderated by the ocean water, which can never have a temperature below −2 °C (28 °F). The period between October 2019 and September 2020 was the second-hottest year in the last century for the Arctic, with surface temperatures 1.9 … Fifty years after the first IPY, in 1932 to 1933, a second IPY was organized. Continue reading → The rest of the seas have ice cover for some part of the winter and spring, but lose that ice during the summer. Despite its location centered on the North Pole, and the long period of darkness this brings, this is not the coldest part of the Arctic. 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