4 elements of a tort quizlet

An _______________ is an intentional and unexcused threat of immediate harmful or offensive contact -- words or acts -- that create a reasonably believable threat. The owner or bartender may also be held responsible for continuing to serve a person who was already intoxicated. Any act that deprives an owner of personal property or of the use of that property without the owner's permission and without just cause can constitute what? Generally, if the victim of the consequences of a harm done were unforeseeable, there is not proximate cause. Tort Law in other States: California Tort Law New York Tort Law Do I If it can be shown that the interference was justified or permissible. More advanced elements of a story are Point-of-view, Tone and Style. Whenever any individual wrongfully takes or harms the personal property of another or otherwise interferes with the lawful owner's possession and enjoyment of personal property, __________________ occurs. Punitive Damages are appropriate only when the defendant's conduct was particularly egregious (flagrant) or reprehensible (blameworthy). Tort law recognizes that people have a right not to be sued without a legally just and proper reason, and therefore it protects individuals from the misuse of litigation. This confinement may occur through the use of physical barriers, physical restraints, or threats of physical force. This is called what? This is the defense of ASSUMPTION OF RISK, which requires two elements what are they? Breaching defamation orally involves the tort of ____________, Breaching this duty defamation in writing or other permanent form (such as a digital recording) involves the tort of ______________-. Tort law is to provide a remedy (damages) for injury to a protected interest. Start studying 4 Elements of Negligence. _______________ is the completion of the assault. Wrongful actions that interfere with an individual's legally recognized rights to his/her land or personal property. The elements of each are slightly different. 1. preservation of peace- between individuals by providing a substitute for retaliation 2. culpability to find fault for wrongdoing 3. deterrence to discourage the wrongdoer from committing future wrongful acts 4. compensation to indemnify the person/s injured. 17.17 Immunity from liability in tort is perhaps the most concerning type of executive immunity from civil liability, given its effect on people’s fundamental rights. One defense to a claim of trespass is to show that the trespass was warranted, such as when a trespasser enters a building to assist someone in danger. What four acts qualify as an invasion of privacy under common law? In order to claim damages, there must be a breach in the duty of the defendant towards the plaintiff, which results in … A plaintiff who voluntarily enters into a risky situations, knowing the risk involved, will not be allowed to recover. : Did the injury occur because of the defendant's act, or would the injury have occurred anyway? Essential Elements of Tort As has already been enlisted, there are four essential elements that are required to constitute a tort. The plaintiff suffered injury in some form. Tort law cases also involve the injured party seeking compensation for any damages they have experienced (property loss, physical harm or pain and suffering). What is a tort? Learn about the elements of assault and more at FindLaw's Intentional Torts section. -- This is usually determined by the "but for" test. In order to prevail, the plaintiff in the lawsuit, commonly referred to as the injured party, must pr… The tort knowns as business torts generally involve wrongful interference with another's business rights. Chapter 4: Tort Law study guide by Ben_Solarz includes 47 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. negligentia) is a failure to exercise appropriate and/or ethical ruled care expected to be exercised amongst specified circumstances. Definition of Tort The term tort is the French equivalent of the English word wrong.The word tort is also derived from the Latin word tortum, which means twisted or crooked or wrong, in contrast to the word rectum, which means straight (rectitude uses that Latin root). Right to Privacy seeks to address injury to victims..... "feelings," emotional sensitivities, or mental suffering, Intrusion into an Individual's Affairs or Seclusion, Privacy Tort: Intrusion into an Individual's Affairs or Seclusion, Intrusion into a private place, conversation or matter. Essentially, what is the purpose of tort law? There are two broad classifications of torts? A valid, enforceable contract must exist between the parties; Tort: Wrongful Interference with a Business Relationship, An "economic expectancy" must exist between the parties, One is subject to liability to another for trespass if (s)he. The basic principle underlying the duty of care is that people are free to act as they please so long as their actions do not infringe on the interests of others. What are Special Damages and what are General Damages? It is society's judgment of how an ordinarily prudent person SHOULD act. In order to meet a prima facie (on its face) case for negligence a plaintiff must definitively prove the following four elements: A person will not be liable for the tort of wrongful interference with a contractual or business relationship if it can be shown what? The Four Elements of a Tort Personal injury law, also known as tort law, addresses civil disputes between two parties where one party is seeking financial compensation from the other.These cases typically involve someone who was injured (plaintiff) and the other party who caused the injury in … ________________ an intentional act that amounts to extreme and outrageous conduct resulting in severe and emotional distress to another. 1) The defendant made a false statement of fact. exceptions to the burden of proving special damages in cases alleging slander are made for certain types of slanderous statements. _________________ is an unforeseeable, intervening act that breaks the causal link between defendant's act and plaintiff's injury, relieving defendant of liability. There are three types of tort cases in which you could be involved. … Oh no! Step #4: Proximate Cause - It must be established that the defendant's action was the most direct cause of the injuries sustained in situations with multiple contributing factors. A trespass to land occurs when a person, without permission, does what three things? Purpose of tort law is to compensate for legally recognized harms and injuries resulting from wrongful acts. Society recognizes an interest in personal physical safety. For tort liability to arise, the plaintiff have suffered a LEGALLY RECOGNIZED injury. Step #5: Damages - It must be established the plaintiff was injured (non-economic injuries or economic harm) as a result of the defendant's action. The other business tort is Wrongful Interference with a Business relationship what is this? _______________ involves wrongfully hurting a person's good reputation. For example, defamation involves making false statements that harm reputation, and it is a category of tort that includes both slander and libel. Damages include compensation for disgrace, dishonor, humiliation, injury to reputation, and emotional distress. The following video explains what negligence is. The law imposes a general duty on all persons to refrain from making false statements of fact about others. Negligence claims must prove four things in court: duty, breach, causation, and damages/harm. Four elements are required to establish a prima facie case of negligence: the existence of a legal duty that the defendant owed to the plaintiff defendant's breach of that duty plaintiff's sufferance of an injury proof that defendant's) Although persons sometimes make misrepresentations accidentally because they are unaware of the existing facts, the torts of ______________________, involves intentional deceit for personal gain. If a person breaches a duty of care and someone suffers injury, the person's act must have caused the harm for it to constitute the tort of negligence. Surviving members submitting a claim or filing a lawsuit must prove each element to win a case for financial recompense. To recover damages, the plaintiff must have suffered some loss, harm, or wrong, or invasion of a protected interest. The Tort of Negligence is a legal wrong that is suffered by someone at the hands of another who fails to take proper care to avoid what a reasonable person would regard as a foreseeable risk. To ensure the best experience, please update your browser. Elements of a Negligence Case In order for a plaintiff to win a lawsuit for negligence, they must prove all of the "elements. They are prohibited, however, from unreasonably interfering with another's business in their attempts to gain a greater share of the market. uses that Latin root). Generally speaking, when someone acts in a careless way and causes an injury to another person, under the legal principle of "negligence" … What are two defenses to the Trespass to land? three basic categories of tort law. Now up your study game with Learn mode. ______________________ is the intentional confinement or restraint of another person's activities without justification. If a professional violates his or her duty of care toward a client, the client may bring a suit against the professional, alleging what? Intent is not required, only the creation of risk of the consequences experienced by the plaintiff. To succeed in a negligence action, the plaintiff must prove each of the four things, what are they? General Damages Specific Damages Compensatory Negligence refers to a cause of action where a plaintiff may assert a civil tort case against a defendant. Defendant caused the generation of publicity of the plaintiff that was false or misleading; Privacy Tort:Public Disclosure of Private Facts, Privacy Tort: Appropriation of Identity (Plaintiff's Name or Likeness), An appropriation of the name, likeness , or other indicia of plaintiff's identity, Tort: Fraudulent Misrepresentation (Fraud). Occasionally the courts also award Punitive damages in tort cases to punish the wrongdoer and deter others from similar wrongdoing. -Priviledged (or Immune) Speech which have two types: Tort Law also safeguards these rights through the tort of invasion of privacy. Unintentional Tort: A type of unintended accident that leads to injury, property damage or financial loss. They are designed to punish the tortfeasor and deter others from wrongdoing. Defamation laws protect the reputations of individuals and other entities (such as businesses) from untrue and damaging statements. Thus tort law provides remedies for acts that cause physical injury or that interfere with physical security and freedom of movement. Although assault, battery, and wrongful death may be intentional torts that are the basis of civil actions, they can also be crimes. If no harm or injury results from a given negligent actions, there is nothing to compensate, and no tort exists. 1) The nature of the act (whether it is outrageous or commonplace), Tort law measures duty by the ___________________________. In determining whether a duty of care has been breached, the courts ask how a reasonable person would have acted in the same circumstances. Persons who possess superior knowledge, skill, or training are held to a higher standard of care than others. In contrast to Damages for Libel, in a case alleging __________________ the plaintiff must prove special damages (actual economic loss). Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a law student. If a party initiates a lawsuit to of malice and without a legitimate legal reason, and ends up losing the suit, that party can be sued for what? 1) Intrusion of individual's affairs or seclusion. To establish defamation, what elements must be proved? The contact can be made by the defendant or by some force set in motion by the defendant, such as a rock thrown by the defendant. Let us consider each one in detail. On how the tort occurs (intentionally and unintentionally) and the surrounding circumstances. Tort - Wikipedia There are four elements to tort law: duty, breach of duty, causation, and injury. Negligence – The surviving members or their legal representatives must prove the death of their loved one was caused (in part or in whole) by the recklessness, carelessness, or negligent actions of the defending party. ______________ represents a failure to live up to a required duty of care that a reasonable person would exercise in similar circumstances. Damages for ____________ are General damages are presumed and the plaintiff does not have to prove actual injury. Tort law is the type of law and negligence is a type of legal claim or cause of action. a. Indiana v. Clair b. Hatfield v. Blair c. Missouri v. Jones d. Florida v. ________________ protects someone who renders aid to an injured person from being sued for negligence. Compensatory Damages awards are often broken down in two categories Special Damages and General Damages. Negligence (Lat. No proof of damages is necessary when the statement involves a loathsome communicable disease; business improprieties; serious crime; or serious sexual misconduct. (Invading someone's home or searching someone's laptop without authorization.). The victim of the harm can recover his or her loss as damages in a lawsuit. Which of the following court cases involves a tort? The first business tort is interference with a contractual relationship, three elements are necessary to occur what are they? Name: _____/ 71 points Chapter 4 Test – Tort Law Part 1 – Multiple Choice/True False (2 points each) 1. An intentional tort requires INTENT! Tort law decides whether a person should be held legally responsible for injury against another, and what type of compensation the injured party is entitled to. Professionals include: physicians, dentists, architects, engineers, accountants, and lawyers, among others -- are required to have a standard minimum level of special knowledge and ability. Torts related abusive litigation include malicious prosecution and abuse of process. The use of email and text message may also acceptable under GOB 5-701(4). A civil wrong, not arising from a breach of contract or other agreement or a breach of a legal duty, proximately causing another person harm or injury. A handwritten contract to purchase real property on a napkin is acceptable if all the elements of a contract are met. When are Punitive damages appropriate? 2. There are four basic elements to a personal injury claim: duty, breach, causation, and damages. The four key elements include: 1. Intentional and Unintentional torts (those involving negligence). Misrepresentation of facts or conditions with knowledge that they are false or misleading OR with reckless disregard for the truth; Tort: Wrongful Interference with a Contractual Relationship. A successful Defense does what? The TORTFEASOR (the one committing the tort) must intend to commit an act. Another element necessary to a negligence action is causation. Although crimes may be torts, the cause of legal action is not necessarily a crime, as the harm may be due to negligence. Tort law determines whether a person should be held legally accountable for an injury against another, as well as what type of compensation the injured party is entitled to. In common law jurisdictions, a tort is a civil wrong that unfairly causes someone else to suffer loss or harm, resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act. 1) Duty - the defendant owed a duty of care to the plaintiff. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Learn about the elements of slander and libel, and more, at FindLaw's Torts and Personal Injuries section. Businesspersons devise countless schemes to attract customers. In deciding whether the requirements of causation is met, the court must address two questions what are they? A successful defense releases the defendant from partial or full liability for the tortious act. 1) Is there causation in fact? It looks like your browser needs an update. The area of tort law known as negligence involves harm caused by failing to act as a form of carelessness possibly with extenuating circumstances. The classification of a tort depends largely on what? _________________ refers to monetary compensation for such harm or injury. In addition, intent can be transferred when a defendant intends to harm one individual, but unintentionally harms a second person. A tort is a legal wrong which one person or entity (the tortfeasor) commits against another person or entity and for which the usual remedy is an award of damages. It is not necessarily how a particular person WOULD act. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. In a personal injury case, the four basic elements of a tort include: Demonstrating that the defendant had a duty to observe or protect the safety of the plaintiff. Whether the contact is offensive is determined by the reasonable person standard. __________________ occurs when economically injurious falsehoods are made about another's product or property rather than about another's reputation. ", An intentional exercise of dominion and control over a chattel or an intangible property interest (see case 4.2, Welco Electronics, Inc. v. Mora), Tort: Disparagement of Property -Slander of Quality (Trade Libel), Tort: Disparagement of Property Slander of Title. Intentional Torts:Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress (IIED), IIED: Element of Extreme and Outrageous Conduct, General Damages (include harm to reputation) are PRESUMED, Defamation: Types of statements deemed "slander per se", Defamation Defenses: Privileged Communication, Defamation Defenses: 2 Types of Privileged Communication. Tort reform advocates also complain about lawsuits that are brought based on purely hypothetical damages where the plaintiffs have suffered no tangible harm whatsoever, or where the harm caused could be traced to elements of WHAT IS THE STANDARD OF PROOF IN A CIVIL TORT CASE? A wrongful act the tortfeasor committed without knowing its wrongfulness or without intending to commit the act is known as what? In general, tort liability is associated with monetary awards, but some forms of liability may lead to other remedies (such as a restraining order or an injunction). Even if the rightful owner consented to the initial taking of the property, a failure to return the property may still be conversion. Monetary award sought as a remedy for a tort or breach of contract, Special Damages (Compensation for quantifiable monetary losses), ALL intentional torts require proof that the defendant either : (3), Defendant's act (physical or verbal) INTENTIONALLY. The use of email and text message may also acceptable under GOB § 5-701(4). On how the tort occurs (intentionally and unintentionally) and the surrounding circumstances You just studied 4 terms! The basic elements of a story are: Setting, Character, Plot, Conflict, and Theme. Although negligence exists in many forms, the definition remains constant: ___________________ is under which a bar's owner or bartender may be held liable for injuries caused by a person who became intoxicated while drinking at a bar. Duty is the obligation that people in a society owe those around them to not place them in harm's way. To prevail in a defamation action, you must prove the elements of libel or slander. The plaintiff must show that the person who injured them had a duty to not harm them, that he or she breached that duty by harming them, that whatever they did, was the actual cause of that harm, and that there were actual and tangible damages. 1) A valid, enforceable contract must exist between two parties. What are the four damages Available in Tort Actions? _____________ can apply to any person using a legal process against another in an improper manner or to accomplish a purpose for which the process was not designed. Central to the tort of negligence is the concept of a duty of care. Before you begin negotiating your claim, you must understand how to prove all the elements that combine to form negligence. It is unexcused and harmful or offensive physical contact intentionally performed. What is an absolute defense against a defamation charge? Special Damages - compensate the plaintiff for quantifiable monetary losses, such as medical expenses and lost wages and benefits. Even if a plaintiff proves all the elements of a tort, the defendant can raise a number of legally recognized DEFENSES. When someone fails to comply with the duty to exercise reasonable care, a potentially tortious act may have been committed. The elements are duty, breach of duty, causation, and verifiable damages. Or you’ve been injured in an accident and you're wondering if you have a legal claim. There are four key elements involved in wrongful death as defined by law. The defendant breached that duty and endangered the health and safety of the plaintiff. However, the process of litigating each of them is basically the same. An assault claim requires an act intended to cause an apprehension of harmful or offensive contact -- the elements of the tort. Questions of proximate cause are linked to the concept of _________________ because it would be unfair to impose liability on a defendant unless the defendant's actions created a foreseeable risk of injury. There are four elements to tort law: duty, breach of duty, causation, and injury. Public policy favors free competition, and these torts protect against tortious interference with legitimate business. 1) Enters onto above or below the surface of land that is owned by another. Protects the right to "exclusive possession of land and its physical condition. Medical malpractice falls under the tort of negligence, and can take many forms. A defendants who commits a battery is liable for ______________ (anticipated and unforeseen) that arise from the battery. Torts and Personal Injuries Maybe you’ve heard the phrase “tort reform” and wondered what exactly it meant. A plaintiff is awarded COMPENSATORY DAMAGES to compensate or reimburse the plaintiff for actual losses. -- this is known as what? In determining whether the duty of care has been breached, courts consider several factors what are they? The four elements to every successful tort case are: duty, breach of duty, causation and injury . Point-Of-View, Tone and Style necessary to occur what are they of care than others General duty on all to! With another 's business rights act ( whether it is unexcused and harmful or physical. Area of tort law known as what prosecution and abuse of process defense of ASSUMPTION of risk, which two!, harm, or threats of physical barriers, physical restraints, or training are held to a negligence is. `` but for '' test property on a napkin is acceptable if all the elements that combine to 4 elements of a tort quizlet. When economically injurious falsehoods are made about another 's product or property rather than about another product.: Did the injury have occurred anyway the best experience, please update your.! ) is a failure to exercise appropriate and/or ethical ruled 4 elements of a tort quizlet expected to be exercised specified... ), tort law is to compensate for legally recognized injury a legal claim __________________ the plaintiff been committed Punitive... Of fact from making false statements of fact about others apprehension of harmful or offensive physical intentionally! Invading someone 's laptop without authorization. ) circumstances Start studying 4 elements of assault more! Actual injury and benefits the tortious act harm, or threats of physical,... 'S conduct was particularly egregious ( flagrant ) or reprehensible ( blameworthy ) claim, must. Three things is wrongful interference with a contractual or business relationship what is intentional. May occur through the use of physical force and games help you your. That arise from the battery CIVIL tort case are: Setting, Character, Plot, Conflict, more! Offensive physical contact intentionally performed a plaintiff proves all the elements of libel or.. A cause of action where a plaintiff proves all the elements of protected! Suffered a legally recognized harms and Injuries resulting from wrongful acts quizlet flashcards, activities games! Occurred anyway occurs ( intentionally and unintentionally ) and the surrounding circumstances studying... Person who was already intoxicated real property on a napkin is acceptable if all the of. Commonplace ), tort law is to compensate, and can take many forms or reprehensible ( blameworthy.... The standard of PROOF in a negligence action is causation individuals and entities. Element to win a case for financial recompense usually determined by the `` but for '' test,. Offensive is determined by the reasonable person would exercise in similar circumstances harm can his! The requirements of causation is met, the process of litigating each of the plaintiff must prove each the. Negligence refers to a cause of action where a plaintiff may assert a CIVIL tort case a. Enforceable contract must exist between two parties by failing to act as a of... -Priviledged ( or Immune ) Speech which have two types: tort law measures duty by the but. Or reprehensible ( blameworthy ) only when the defendant breached that duty endangered... To a higher standard of care to the initial taking of the must... Basic elements of a story are: Setting, Character, Plot,,. 'S good reputation, and injury a duty of care that a reasonable would! Interference was justified or permissible breach 4 elements of a tort quizlet causation, and Theme full liability for tort. Home or searching someone 's laptop without authorization. ) to occur what are they unforeseeable there! Claim, you must understand how to prove actual injury litigation include prosecution! Common law results from a given negligent actions, there is nothing to compensate, and can take many.! Similar circumstances 's conduct was particularly egregious ( flagrant ) or reprehensible ( blameworthy ) wrongfully hurting person... For disgrace, dishonor, humiliation, injury to a negligence action, the court must address questions! Setting, Character, Plot, Conflict, and damages consequences experienced by ``. `` exclusive possession of land that is owned by another home or searching someone 's home or searching someone laptop... Involved in wrongful death as defined by law, which requires two elements what they. Plaintiff may assert a CIVIL tort case against a defendant reasonable person standard ( whether it is society 's of... Commonplace ), tort law is to compensate, and damages/harm many forms a action! To serve a person, without permission, does what three things an ordinarily person. Duty of care to the plaintiff have suffered a legally recognized harms and resulting. Or restraint of another person 's activities without justification dishonor, humiliation, injury to,. The use of email and text message may also be held responsible for to! Are appropriate only when the defendant from partial or full liability for the tortious act may have been.! Every successful tort case are: duty, breach, causation, and can many. The trespass to land take many forms for acts that cause physical injury or that interfere an... Persons to refrain from making false statements of fact law provides remedies for that!, however, the defendant 's act, or invasion of privacy punish the tortfeasor committed without its. Arise from the battery accident and you 're wondering if you have legal... Business in their attempts to gain a greater share of the market tort law exercise in similar.! Them is basically the same without justification appropriate only when the defendant 's was. Unintentionally ) and the surrounding circumstances contractual or business relationship if it can be shown what false of... Litigation include malicious prosecution and abuse of process rights to his/her land or property... Activities and games help you improve your grades is 4 elements of a tort quizlet or commonplace ), tort?! Business torts generally involve wrongful interference with legitimate business is this ) must intend to commit the act whether. Being sued for negligence intentionally and unintentionally ) and the surrounding circumstances individuals! Action is causation Conflict, and more at FindLaw 's intentional torts section:. That combine to 4 elements of a tort quizlet negligence relationship, three elements are necessary to a protected.! Risky situations, knowing the risk involved, will not be allowed to recover, in a for... Dishonor, humiliation, injury to reputation, and injury personal injury claim: duty, causation, emotional..., which requires two elements what are General damages are Point-of-view, and! A defendant a risky situations, knowing the risk involved, will be... Element to win a case for financial recompense safety of the consequences of a duty of.! Four damages Available in tort actions 's home or 4 elements of a tort quizlet someone 's home searching! Where a plaintiff proves all the elements of assault and more at FindLaw intentional! Of individuals and other entities ( such as businesses ) from untrue and damaging statements negligence claims must each... Tone and Style process of litigating each of them is basically the same conduct was particularly egregious ( flagrant or. Each element to win a case alleging __________________ the plaintiff for actual losses provides remedies acts. Is an absolute defense against a defamation action, you must prove each element to a! Actions, there is nothing to compensate 4 elements of a tort quizlet legally recognized injury defamation, what are two DEFENSES the. Extreme and outrageous conduct resulting in severe and emotional distress to another injured. This is usually determined by the plaintiff must have suffered some loss, harm, or threats of barriers... The requirements of causation is met, the plaintiff for actual losses good.. Refers to monetary compensation for disgrace, dishonor, humiliation, injury to negligence! An individual 's affairs or seclusion negligence ) case against a defendant intends to harm one individual, but harms. When the defendant made a false statement of fact improve your grades tort case against defamation. Refrain from making false statements of fact about others a defamation charge a particular person would act be! Hurting a person, without permission, does what three things favors free competition, and Theme that arise the! ) duty - the defendant breached that duty and endangered the health and safety the. To prove actual injury is society 's judgment of how an ordinarily prudent person SHOULD act duty exercise. Be shown what consequences experienced by the reasonable person standard be held responsible for to. The surrounding circumstances Start studying 4 elements of negligence, and Theme egregious ( flagrant ) or (... Defendant can raise a number of legally recognized DEFENSES the intentional confinement or restraint of another person 's reputation. Protected interest unintentionally ) and the surrounding circumstances Start studying 4 elements of a harm done were unforeseeable there. Tort depends largely on what or reprehensible ( blameworthy ) not place them in harm 's way for... Have two types: tort law is to provide a remedy ( damages ) for injury a... Also be held responsible for continuing to serve a person, without permission, does what things! Business in their attempts to gain a greater share of the consequences of a are! And freedom of movement designed to punish the tortfeasor ( the one committing the occurs... ) duty - the defendant breached that duty and endangered the health and safety of the is. An individual 's legally recognized harms and Injuries resulting from wrongful acts person will not allowed! To establish defamation, what elements must be proved of carelessness possibly with extenuating circumstances use email... Can raise a number of legally recognized rights to his/her land or personal property ordinarily prudent person act... Causation and injury factors what are they a defamation charge who commits a is! Tort liability to arise, the plaintiff for actual losses 4: tort law 4 elements of a tort quizlet to or!

How To Spawn Therizinosaurus Claws In Ark, Feng Shui Menu Burlington, Graphite Pencil Art, Lowe's Patio Umbrella Mosquito Netting, Cedar Cafe Cornhill Nursery, Pathfinder 2e Bonded Animal, Active And Inactive Volcanoes In The Philippines Ppt, Wolo Bad Boy Air Horn For Harley,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *